This is probably THE most commonly question I get asked about languages, interestingly, and it all has to do with the development of “Kaverini: Nuuk Adventures”, which is a mobile game that I and others are working on right now, set in Greenland, and slated for release either in late 2017 or sometime in 2018.
Now my mischievous side just wants me to write this:
NOT AT ALL
And be done with it.
But I won’t do that.
Because if you clicked on this page, it means that you are curious and I should reward curiosity rather than punish it. (Too many people and organizations do the opposite, I fear).
So what do Icelandic and Greenlandic have in common?
Not long ago, Iceland was actually a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, not unlike Greenland and the Faroe Islands are now. This changed as a result of World War II, in which Denmark was invaded by Nazi Germany and, as a result, Hitler could have used the Faroe Island – Icelandic – Greenland route as a quasi-land bridge to North America.
So the allies needed to seize these areas as quickly as possible, and as a result it was primarily the Americans that wound up in Iceland, bringing along their culture, way of life and broadcasting until 2006, when they left. Iceland is one of those countries had has tasted American culture with closeness that most other cultures in the West, yet alone beyond it, still can’t fathom, no matter how many English words they use or how much American television they watch. (The only other ones that come even close are Germany and Israel).
But in 1944, Iceland becomes independent, and the Faroe Islands did have a VERY short-lived independence as well (and by “very short-lived” I mean “a matter of days”).
Nowadays, Iceland is (proportionally speaking) the most visited country in human history with the Icelandic tourist “mafia” growing by the hour. (I am a proud member myself).
Case in point
Icelandic is indeed very purist, but it also took words and structures from other languages as well, most notably French, Spanish and Danish (in addition to the more recent English loan words that popular musicians of Iceland, such as Emmsjé Gauti, tend to use very frequently.)
The one thing that Greenlandic and Icelandic do have in very much in common is their shared experience via being a member of the Kingdom of Denmark. (What’s more, there was also an American military presence in Greenland during the Second World War and beyond it, but nothing remotely of the same scope as existed in Iceland).
Keep in mind that Kingdom of Denmark does not necessarily equal the country called Denmark, the same way that there are dependences of the British Crown that are not in the UK (such as Papua New Guinea).
Greenlandic, perhaps thanks to missionaries as well as being from a different language family entirely, borrowed Danish idioms more heavily than Icelandic did, a comparatively fewer English words (although they obviously exist in Greenlandic, too).
To summarize: Icelandic and Greenlandic both have Danish and American influence (including loan words and idioms), despite being very purist and having reputations from the outside for being impossible to learn.
And that is where the similarities end.
Greenlandic is an Eskimo-Aleut language that is about as similar to Icelandic as Russian is to Chinese. In Russian and in Chinese you may hear similar words for vegetarian, the same way that in Greenlandic and Icelandic you will hear similar words for car.
I think that one reason I get asked this question a lot is because people see Greenland as a place of the Norse settlers first (the ones that died out in the area that is now Qaqortoq in the far south), sadly leaving the Inuit out of the picture—the same Inuit who brought “Kalaallisut” (or West Greenlandic, the standard and the official language of Greenland) to the island.
And yes, it goes without saying that people do, in fact, live on Greenland. Nothing near the scale you may encounter in much of the rest of the globe (it has the lowest population density out of anywhere), but if you want to read more about Greenlandic, look here.
Hope this answers your questions.